Two-Factor Authentication is a method of determining the identity or credentials of an individual using two methods, commonly involving something you know (such as a password) and something you have (such as a card). The second factor now more frequently involves a personal unchangeable characteristic verified using biometric technology (such as fingerprint, face or iris recognition). 2FA is commonly used for gaining access to information or networks or for use in financial or banking transactions. The simplest form of 2FA is used by millions of people who possess Chip and PIN cards. The card itself is something you have and the PIN is something you know. The PIN is useless without the card and vice versa. Chip and PIN has come under some criticism in terms of security and 2FA has become more sophisticated with the use of alternative tokens such as USB sticks or mobile phones and alternatives to PIN identification such as pattern based password generators and random one-time password generators as well as biometric technology mentioned previously.