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Guides
2FA
Two-Factor Authentication is a method of determining the identity or credentials of an individual using two methods, commonly involving something you know (such as a password) and something you have (such as a card). The second factor now more frequently involves a personal unchangeable characteristic verified using biometric technology (such as fingerprint, face or iris recognition). 2FA is commonly used for gaining access to information or networks or for use in financial or banking transactions. The simplest form of 2FA is used by millions of people who possess Chip and PIN cards.
3G
This refers to 3rd Generation and applies to mobile or cellular telephones. It is a communication standard catering for high speed broadband internet access using mobile technology. 3G also supports video transmission over mobile networks.
419 Scam
Referring to section 419 of the Nigerian criminal code, these scams follow the format of an e-mailed invitation to take part in a money laundering scheme to wash funds left by a deceased relative of the sender.
ACF
Activity Controlled Frame rate is a camera function which determines the transmission rate of images onto the camera network. This is usually based on activity and is useful for camera installations where activities are usually low such as unmanned buildings during the night. This technique saves on storage and bandwidth requirements by streaming a low frame rate during periods of inactivity and automatically increasing the frame rate when activity is detected within the field of view of the camera.
ACH Fraud
This is fraud directed at the US Automated Clearing House which deals with electronic funds transfers of many different forms including business to business payments and payroll transactions.
Anonymous Proxy
A proxy server is a computer which handles requests from clients and directs them to other servers. An anonymous proxy (or anonymising server) scrubs client details from the requests that are passed out to other servers.
APWG
The Anti-Phishing Working Group was formed to fight against phishing and on-line fraud. It currently consists many industry specialists and companies dedicated to the elimination of identity theft. The APWG provides a forum of opinions as well as mechanism for the dissemination of best practices which can be deployed against phishing.
ARC
Alarm Receiving Centres can be in-house or purchased as a service. The function of the ARC is to monitor alarms and take appropriate action. The action taken can differ depending on the client, the nature of the alarm and any additional information received when the alarm is triggered. Modern alarm systems often have false alarm detection capabilities or confirmation technology involving, for example, the triggering of a PTZ camera to perform surveillance operations. These technologies enable informed decisions to be taken regarding the alarm call.
Backscatter
The use of backscatter X-ray technology for screening human subjects at airports and border crossings became more widespread after a terrorist bombing attempt involving explosives hidden near the surface of the bomber’s body. Backscatter involves analysis of the low-dosage x-ray reflections which bounce of a human target revealing the surface profile of the human form as well as any foreign objects hidden within or under the clothing of the subject. In this respect, it is a viable and reliable alternative to physical searches or “pat-downs”.
BAFSA
The British Automatic Fire Sprinkler Association was set up in the 1970’s as a representative body for both installers and manufacturers of fire sprinklers as well as fire service authorities and insurers. One of the prime aims of the organisation is to disseminate information publicly concerning fire safety and the benefits that can be provided by a sprinkler system.
BECTA
Becta (Bringing Educational Creativity To All) is a UK organisation whose aim is to promote the use and development of information technology in the British educational system.
BIMS
Biometric Information Management System is a product offered by Human Recognition Systems for the construction industry enabling biometric construction site access control to be integrated with other construction management system features such as Time and Attendance, safety incident logging, manpower deployment and casual worker management such as contract expiries and site lock-outs .
Botnet
A botnet is a collection of computers which have been taken control of and which are used in combination to send out spam and other malicious software.
Brandjacking
Brandjacking is a term used to describe the unethical on-line use of brand names for profit. The practice is usually associated with other types of internet fraud such as cyber-squatting. Brandjackers exploit popular brands to drive traffic to their sites without the brand owners permission to do so. The brand hijacking is done in such a way as to make best use of search engine optimisation techniques to give wide visibility of the hijacked brands within the search engine rankings.
Breadcrumb trail
This term has two distinct usages in modern technology. The first relates to GPS tracking systems whereby the location device records positions at set intervals thus leaving a history of the positions of the tracked device. The second usage relates to internet site structure positioning which shows the position of the current page being viewed in relation to the overall structure of the domain. This is useful in tracking progress through a site.
BSIA
The British Security Industry Association is the UK security trade association with current membership comprising approximately 70% of the industry which covers the manufacture and supply of security equipment and the delivery of guarding and consultancy. The role of the body is to provide information about the security industry, to act as an industry lobbying body to central Government, to maintain and encourage conformance to standards and to facilitate development through training.
Buffer Overload
A buffer overload is a type of Denial of Service attack which fills a programme’s data buffers so that further traffic is denied.
C3ISR
A military term referring to Command, Control, Communications, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance.
C4
C4 is a kind of plastic explosive which, weight for weight, is more powerful than TNT and can be moulded into any shape for ease of concealment. However, manufacturers employ a tracer chemical in its preparation thus making the explosive easily detectable by airport screening systems.
CAC
The Common Access Card is a smart card issued by the US Department of Defense to all military personnel and civilian employees enabling access to a variety of resources. The CAC is a one-card-for-all solution providing the means of physical entry to premises and buildings as well as accessing computer resources. In order to achieve this, computers used to access DoD resources need to have a compatible card reader. The card also enables e-mail encryption.
Casino Surveillance
Casinos represent one of the most technically demanding requirements for surveillance systems with diverse operational requirements and equally diverse operating conditions. Gaming surveillance is focussed on the activities that take place on the gaming tables themselves and is used to settle disputes, prevent and detect cheating and also to protect the casino and players from dishonest employees.
CBRNE
Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear and Explosive refers to weapon payload types and delivery and is a term frequently used in military circles and also civilian emergency services when assessing threats and determining the response requirements to such threats.
CERT
The Computer Emergency Response Team was originally set up by Carnegie Mellon University in the late 1980’s in response to the first widespread infection of computers by malicious software. With Government funding, CERT was set up to counter future problems of this nature. Since then, many commercial companies have been established to counter the threat of malicious code but CERT still operates as a centre of research and expertise and its role has expanded to encompass all aspects of computer and network security.
Check21
Refers to an American Law, the “Check Clearing for the 21st Century Act” which makes provision for the digitisation of paper financial cheques / checks to enable onward processing to be performed electronically without further reference to the original paper document.
Cloud Computing
This term refers to an IT infrastructure that doesn't physically exist within the four walls of an organisation. Loosely synonymous with internet technology, cloud computing refers to resources that are in that is to say they exist on a network outside the immediate control of the user. This encompasses such concepts as software-as-a-service and web 2.
CMOS sensor
CMOS (complimentary metal oxide semiconductor) devices are used as an alternative to CCD (charge coupled device) sensors for image capture in cameras. CMOS sensors are cheaper and are used in most modern, low cost camera systems. CCD cameras are more expensive but offer improved resolution and light sensitivity hence they are better for machine vision applications and for image analysis.
CNP
Card Not Present transactions are retail payments that are made without the card holder being present at the point of sale. This usually means telephone sales but is increasingly associated with internet sales transactions. Given the opportunities for fraud that this provides, the card issuers and some independent vendors have come up with anti-fraud measures such as subscriber passwords and card security codes (CSC) which are printed on the card signature panel.
COBIT
Control Objectives for Information and related Technology (or COBIT) is a framework of guidelines and best practices for IT Managers to achieve corporate governance and compliance. The framework was created jointly by the Information Systems Audit and Control Association (ISACA) and the IT Governance Institute (ITGI). The adoption of the COBIT model of creating a compliant IT framework is recognised as one of the most controlled methods of achieving governance.
Controlware
With extensive background and experience in IT communications, Controlware Communications Systems specialises in the delivery of IP networks for video transmission offering integrated IT security, surveillance and networked storage systems.
CSIA
The Cyber Security Industry Alliance seeks to establish policies in the US and Europe regarding the privacy of information systems. The group has the objective of establishing legislation in America concerning the protection of consumer data and influencing the EU e-privacy directive.
CT
Computed Tomography was originally devised for the medical industry for obtaining 3 dimensional internal images of the human body, a technology which is now mainstream and familiar. It is also now being applied in the security industry to a small extent for explosives screening.
Cybersquatting
Cybersquatting is the practice of acquiring domain names of registered trade names and selling them on to the trade mark owner at inflated prices, often connected with other money raising activities such as blackmail and links to competitors sites etcetera. A related ploy is to use common misspellings of trade marks to drive traffic to a site.
Deduplication
Deduplication is a storage optimisation technique used to prevent the same information from being stored redundantly across organisations which is especially important in environments where attached documents are frequently distributed in the internal mail. Effective deduplication reduces storage overhead and improves back up and recovery time for data.
Digital Video
Digital video is the technology of storing and transmitting CCTV images in digital format using IP networking. Video images are digitally encoded using standard CODECS such as Motion JPEG, M-PEG4 or H.264 and transmitted over IP networks and stored. With Digital video, the video stream is digital and not simply the recording medium. By comparison, for example, DVR technology is a digital recording medium and doesn’t imply that the video stream is digital.
Dirty Bomb
A dirty bomb or RDD (Radiological Dispersal Device) is usually a conventional bomb or improvised explosive device which contains radioactive material. The bomb is used to spread radiation across as wide an area as possible. The bomb is not a nuclear weapon and usually has minimal destructive power, its main purpose being to create a large enough blast to disperse the radioactive material. This material is usually nuclear waste from power stations. Materials most likely to be used in dirty bombs are Caesium-137, Strontium-90 and Americium-241.
DNDO
The Domestic Nuclear Detection Office is part of the US Department of Homeland Security and was recently created with the specific purpose of detecting the illegal import or transportation of nuclear fissile or radiological material in an effort to protect the country from large scale destructive weapons or radiological weapons used in terrorism.
Dome camera
Dome cameras are either ceiling mounted or suspended from a wall mounted bracket depending on the application and the field of view required. The camera unit is mounted inside a transparent dome which can be tinted to obscure the camera position. Dome cameras come in a wide variety of forms. They can be analogue or IP, fixed or mobile. PTZ domes can rotate (pan), incline (tilt) or focus closer on objects of interest (zoom). The cameras can by thermal for night vision or be equipped with infrared illuminators or they can be for daytime use only.
Drive by attack
A growing number of innocent web sites with a normal reputation become compromised with the web master having no knowledge of it. The compromiser can install code on the web site which attempts to covertly install malicious code on the unprotected computers of visitors to the site. This installation attempt is known as a drive by attack.
DRM
Digital Rights Management software (or RMS ) Rights Management Software) is used by copyright holders to protect their digital assets from being copied, pirated or redistributed. DRM can be applied to all digital media and includes software, games, music, films and multimedia.
DVR
Digital Video Recorders are the equivalent of older multiplexers and video cassette recording systems for surveillance requirements. They allow multiple camera recording capabilities and non-linear playback facilities with all recordings being placed on computer hard disk arrays. However, despite their name, DVRs are used for recording analogue video images and are unsuitable for digital IP camera networks and therefore suffer from the disadvantages of analogue recording environments.
ECM
In the defence industry, Electronic Counter Measures include devices used to block signals used for identification or detection such as radar or sonar.
Edge Analytics
As more surveillance functionality is pushed out from central servers and recording devices to the camera, the more desirable it becomes for the camera to perform some kind of analysis of the images in its field of view and make decisions about what to stream to the server and what to ignore. Component manufacturers are now embedding analysis capability into IP megapixel firmware to achieve this aim. One advantage of this approach is the reduced demands on network bandwidth and storage requirements which can easily offset the additional cost of having on-board analytics.
Edge devices
The concept of an edge device is that traditionally centralised core processing tasks are performed away from the centre towards the edge, for example, firewalls are at the router rather than the server. In surveillance systems, edge intelligence in digital cameras refers to the ability of the camera to process images or perform image analysis and make decisions prior to transmission. This is particularly important progress for high resolution megapixel cameras which require high bandwidth and significant storage. Using edge intelligence with these cameras results only in images that may be considered important being transmitted and stored.
Electronic Locks
An electronic lock operates using an electrical actuator rather than the mechanical system used in traditional locks. Electronic locking systems offer flexibility by enabling an interface to an access control system and further integration with other security systems as well as personnel management tasks such as time and attendance.
Encryption
Encryption is the coding of data to prevent it from being read by anyone other than those who hold the means of decoding it. There are various levels of encryption, each having a different strength of security. The methods of coding and decoding is with the use of encryption keys, which can be public keys (for coding) or private keys. Data can be encrypted when stored or encrypted when in motion. Encryption in motion is used for the secure transmission of data whilst encryption of stored data is used for static information electronically stored.
Fast Flux (or flux bot)
Botnets (see separate entry) control a number of computers for relaying spam and other malicious code and are usually controlled from one server such as an IRC (Internet Relay Chat) server making them reasonably easily to isolate and shut down once the source of a botnet is established. Fast Flux enables botnets to be controlled across multiple servers, often numbering into the thousands making the botnet constantly available, difficult to isolate and therefore difficult to shut down.
FFDO
The controversial Federal Flight Deck Officers program is an American initiative to have armed crew member on the flight decks of commercial and freight aircraft as an additional layer of security in the fight against air piracy. Overseen by the Transportation Security Administration, the program includes the training of selected crew members in legal issues and the use of firearms. The controversy surrounds the legality of the use of such crew members for international flights.
Flux Bot (or fast flux)
See Fast Flux.
Forklift Upgrade
A term used by open standards suppliers such as Milestone Systems to describe the undesirable situation that the use of open systems avoids. Performing a forklift upgrade implies that system enhancements can’t be performed piecemeal and that a small upgrade demands large scale associated changes. This goes against the notions of open architecture and plug-and-play. It is argued that by enabling network nodes to be independent from each other and vanilla, each can be swapped out of the system for upgrading without having to change other elements of the system.
GRC
GRC refers to Governance, Risk and Compliance which is an approach to business management that seeks to ensure regulations are adhered to, risks are managed and management processes function according to specification. The area of GRC is very broad and in many cases relates to specific industries. For example, the Finance industry is governed by a different set of risks and regulations to the Healthcare industry. Increasingly, companies operating extensive IT systems are regulated by further standards and compliance requirements regarding the way data is stored and handled.
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